Towards robust 3D face verification using Gaussian mixture models

Janez Križaj, Vitomir Štruc, Simon Dobrišek (2012): Towards robust 3D face verification using Gaussian mixture models. In: International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 9 , 2012.

Abstract

This paper focuses on the use of Gaussian Mixture models (GMM) for 3D face verification. A special interest is taken in practical aspects of 3D face verification systems, where all steps of the verification procedure need to be automated and no meta-data, such as pre-annotated eye/nose/mouth positions, is available to the system. In such settings the performance of the verification system correlates heavily with the performance of the employed alignment (i.e., geometric normalization) procedure. We show that popular holistic as well as local recognition techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), or Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT)-based methods considerably deteriorate in their performance when an “imperfect” geometric normalization procedure is used to align the 3D face scans and that in these situations GMMs should be preferred. Moreover, several possibilities to improve the performance and robustness of the classical GMM framework are presented and evaluated: i) explicit inclusion of spatial information, during the GMM construction procedure, ii) implicit inclusion of spatial information during the GMM construction procedure and iii) on-line evaluation and possible rejection of local feature vectors based on their likelihood. We successfully demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed modifications on the Face Recognition Grand Challenge data set.

BibTeX (Download)

@article{krizaj2012towards,
title = {Towards robust 3D face verification using Gaussian mixture models},
author = { Janez Kri\v{z}aj and Vitomir \v{S}truc and Simon Dobri\v{s}ek},
url = {http://luks.fe.uni-lj.si/nluks/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/IntechJanez-1.pdf},
doi = {10.5772/52200},
year  = {2012},
date = {2012-01-01},
journal = {International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems},
volume = {9},
publisher = {InTech},
abstract = {This paper focuses on the use of Gaussian Mixture models (GMM) for 3D face verification. A special interest is taken in practical aspects of 3D face verification systems, where all steps of the verification procedure need to be automated and no meta-data, such as pre-annotated eye/nose/mouth positions, is available to the system. In such settings the performance of the verification system correlates heavily with the performance of the employed alignment (i.e., geometric normalization) procedure. We show that popular holistic as well as local recognition techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), or Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT)-based methods considerably deteriorate in their performance when an “imperfect” geometric normalization procedure is used to align the 3D face scans and that in these situations GMMs should be preferred. Moreover, several possibilities to improve the performance and robustness of the classical GMM framework are presented and evaluated: i) explicit inclusion of spatial information, during the GMM construction procedure, ii) implicit inclusion of spatial information during the GMM construction procedure and iii) on-line evaluation and possible rejection of local feature vectors based on their likelihood. We successfully demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed modifications on the Face Recognition Grand Challenge data set.},
keywords = {},
pubstate = {published},
tppubtype = {article}
}